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A month and a half on from the time when the Russians encircled the town, German troops helped the Habsburg troops to break the encirclement. Civilians were ordered to leave at once – in part to relieve the severe food shortage. By October 31, Hindenburg had been defeated at the Battle of the Vistula River and withdrew from his assault on Warsaw. This caused Boroevic to pull back from the River San line, and abandon von Hötzendorf's proposed offensive against Russia. On November 9 the Russians resumed the siege of Przemyśl. Radko Dimitriev's force was withdrawn from the Przemyśl sector and moved north. The Russian Eleventh Army under General Andrei Nikolaevich Selivanov took up the siege operations. Selivanov did not order any frontal assaults as Dimitriev had, and instead settled to starve the garrison into submission. By mid-December 1914 the Russians were pounding the fortress with ceaseless artillery fire seeking to compel the town's surrender. During the winter 1914–1915 the Habsburg armies continued to fight their way to the fortress. Months of fighting resulted in great losses, largely from frostbite and disease, but relieving forces failed to reach the garrison at Przemysl. In February, 1915 Boroevic led another relief effort towards Przemyśl. By the end of February all relief efforts having been defeated von Hötzendorf informed Hermann Kusmanek von Burgneustädten that no further efforts would be made. Selivanov was given sufficient artillery to reduce the fortress. The Russians overran the northern defenses on March 13. An improvised line of defense held up the Russian attacks long enough for Kusmanek to destroy anything left in the city that could be of use to the Russians once captured. On March 19 Kusmanek ordered an attempt to break out but his sallies were repulsed and he was forced to retreat back into the city. With nothing useful left within the city, Kusmanek had no choice but to surrender. On March 22 the remaining garrison of 117,000 surrendered to the Russians. Among the captured were nine generals, ninety-three senior staff officers, and 2500 other officers. Diaries and notebooks kept by various people in the town have survived. The diary of Josef Tomann, an Austrian recruited into military service as a junior doctor, reveals the results of the activities of garrison officers: "The hospitals have been recruiting teenage girls as nurses. They get 120 crowns a month and free meals.

投稿日時 - 2019-05-18 14:38:44

QNo.9617708

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>A month and a half on from the time when the Russians encircled the town, German troops helped the Habsburg troops to break the encirclement. Civilians were ordered to leave at once – in part to relieve the severe food shortage. By October 31, Hindenburg had been defeated at the Battle of the Vistula River and withdrew from his assault on Warsaw. This caused Boroevic to pull back from the River San line, and abandon von Hötzendorf's proposed offensive against Russia.
⇒ロシア軍が町を包囲した時から1か月半後、ドイツ軍はハプスブルク軍の包囲突破を援助した。民間人たちは直ちに退去するように命じられた ― それは一部には深刻な食料不足を解除するためでもあった。10月31日のころ、ヒンデンブルクは「ヴィスワ川の戦い」で敗北し、ワルシャワへの攻撃から撤退した。これによりボロエビッチはサン川戦線から引き揚げ、フォン・ヘッツェンドルフの提案したロシアに対する攻撃を放棄した。

>On November 9 the Russians resumed the siege of Przemyśl. Radko Dimitriev's force was withdrawn from the Przemyśl sector and moved north. The Russian Eleventh Army under General Andrei Nikolaevich Selivanov took up the siege operations. Selivanov did not order any frontal assaults as Dimitriev had, and instead settled to starve the garrison into submission. By mid-December 1914 the Russians were pounding the fortress with ceaseless artillery fire seeking to compel the town's surrender.
⇒11月9日、ロシア軍はプシェムィシルの包囲を再開した。ラドコ・ディミトリエフの軍団はプルミエルスル地区から撤退し、北へ移動した。アンドレイ・ニコラエビッチ・セリバノフ将軍麾下のロシア第11方面軍が包囲作戦を引き継いだ。セリバノフは、ディミトリエフのような正面攻撃は命じず、代わりに守備隊を飢餓に陥れて服従させることにした。1914年12月中旬までに、ロシア軍は町の降伏を強要しようとして間断のない大砲火で要塞を攻撃していた。

>During the winter 1914–1915 the Habsburg armies continued to fight their way to the fortress. Months of fighting resulted in great losses, largely from frostbite and disease, but relieving forces failed to reach the garrison at Przemysl. In February, 1915 Boroevic led another relief effort towards Przemyśl. By the end of February all relief efforts having been defeated von Hötzendorf informed Hermann Kusmanek von Burgneustädten that no further efforts would be made. Selivanov was given sufficient artillery to reduce the fortress.
⇒1914年-1915年の冬の間、ハプスブルク方面軍は要塞と周辺通路をめぐって戦い続けた。何か月もの戦いの結果、主に凍傷や病気による大損失が発生したが、プシェムィシル守備隊への救援部隊の到着は果せなかった。1915年2月に、ボロエビッチはプシェムィシルに向けて別の救済活動を導入した。2月末のころ、すべての救済活動が敗れて、ヘッツェンドルフはヘルマン・クスマネク・フォン・ブルクニューシュテッテンにこれ以上の努力は行われないだろうと伝えた。セリバノフには要塞を減滅させるに足る十分な砲兵(火器)が与えられた。

>The Russians overran the northern defenses on March 13. An improvised line of defense held up the Russian attacks long enough for Kusmanek to destroy anything left in the city that could be of use to the Russians once captured. On March 19 Kusmanek ordered an attempt to break out but his sallies were repulsed and he was forced to retreat back into the city. With nothing useful left within the city, Kusmanek had no choice but to surrender.
⇒ロシア軍は3月13日に北部の防衛施設を蹂躙した。即興の防衛線(が立ち上げられて)それによってロシア軍の攻撃を遅らせたので、クスマネクが都市に残っていたものを破壊するのに十分なだけの時間が取れた。3月19日、クスマネクは突破の試みを命じたが、彼の突撃隊も撃退されて、彼は都市に引き返すことを強制された。市中には役に立つものが何もなく、クスマネクは降伏するしか選択の余地はなかった。

>On March 22 the remaining garrison of 117,000 surrendered to the Russians. Among the captured were nine generals, ninety-three senior staff officers, and 2500 other officers. Diaries and notebooks kept by various people in the town have survived. The diary of Josef Tomann, an Austrian recruited into military service as a junior doctor, reveals the results of the activities of garrison officers: "The hospitals have been recruiting teenage girls as nurses. They get 120 crowns a month and free meals.
⇒3月22日、残りの守備隊117,000人がロシア軍に降伏した。捕虜の中には将軍9人、上級将校93人、および、その他の将校2500人がいた。町のさまざまな人々が保管していた日記やノートが生き残った。軍務に服していたオーストリア人の新兵ヨゼフ・トマンの日記は、守備隊将校らの活動の結果を明らかにしている。すなわち、「病院は看護師として10代の少女を募集している。彼女らは1か月につき120クローネと無料の食事が与えられる。

投稿日時 - 2019-05-24 21:09:46

お礼

回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-05-26 01:27:10

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ANo.1

https://forest.watch.impress.co.jp/docs/serial/yajiuma/1182009.html

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投稿日時 - 2019-05-23 13:03:57

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