In 1925, the British Official Historian J. E. Edmonds, wrote in the History of the Great War that from 13 to 31 October, the twelve 3rd Division battalions had been opposed by thirteen German infantry regiments, four Jäger battalions and 27 cavalry regiments. The British troops had succeeded in repulsing German attacks through endurance and fire-discipline, which had multiplied the effect of a small number of troops. The German 6th Army had been reinforced and originally been intended to break through from Arras to La Bassée and Armentières, until 29 October when all available heavy artillery was transferred north for the Battle of Gheluvelt. Attacks against II Corps were reduced to holding operations and the front opposite the French at Arras was kept passive. When the Indian Corps took over, the German offensive in the area had almost ended. Edmonds wrote that in defence, soldiers sheltered in improvised positions with little protection from artillery and little barbed wire. Much of the country was wooded, which obscured large areas of the front from aeroplane observers, who spent more time grounded by the October weather. The Allied force was made up of Belgian, French and British army units and faced a homogeneous opponent with unity of command but the main German advantage was in heavy artillery and trench warfare equipment, much of which did not exist in the Allied armies. The II Corps had c. 14,000 casualties, from 12 to 31 October. The 3rd Division had 5,835 losses, with the 8th and 9th brigades reduced by about 50 percent. The 5th Division casualties were similar and the Indian Corps up to 31 October had 1,565 casualties. On 31 October II Corps had only 14,000 men of the original 24,000 man establishment, of which c. 1,400 men were inexperienced drafts. The Germans recorded 6,000 casualties during the battles with II Corps.[48] II Corps was withdrawn for ten day's rest, from the night of 29/30 October and relieved by the Indian Corps but within days, most of its battalions had to be sent to I and III corps as reinforcements. Smith-Dorrien returned to England on 10 November and Willcocks assumed command of the 14th Brigade of the 5th Division, which acted as a mobile reserve. The Indian Corps battalions came under much shellfire during the relief and remained in the front-line trenches, instead of retreating further back temporarily, a practice which had been adopted by experienced units. On 2 November, a bigger German attack north-west of Neuve-Chapelle drove a Gurkha battalion back until local counter-attacks recovered the ground by 5 October and the old trenches were filled in and abandoned.
By 3 November, the Indian Corps had suffered 1,989 casualties along its 8 mi (13 km) front. Some historians have written that c. 65 percent of Indian casualties were self-inflicted wounds, not always punished by court martial but a study by Sir B. Seton in 1915, found no evidence to support such an allegation.

投稿日時 - 2019-04-28 00:05:34




>In 1925, the British ~ for the Battle of Gheluvelt.
⇒1925年、英国の公報史家J. E.エドモンズは「世界大戦史」にこう書いた。曰く、10月13日から31日まで、第3師団の12個大隊が、ドイツ軍歩兵13個連隊、狙撃兵4個大隊、および騎兵27個連隊に対峙していた。英国軍は、少数の軍隊の効果を増加させた持久力と射撃訓練によってドイツ軍の攻撃を撃退することに成功した。ドイツ軍の第6方面軍は、もともとアラスからラ・バセやアルマンティエールに突入することを意図して強化されていたが、それは10月29日までのことで、その時点で(急遽)利用できる全ての重砲兵隊が「ゲルベルトの戦い」のために北へ移送された。

>Attacks against II Corps ~ exist in the Allied armies.

>The II Corps had c. 14,000 ~ corps as reinforcements.

>Smith-Dorrien returned ~ were filled in and abandoned.

>By 3 November, the Indian ~ such an allegation.

投稿日時 - 2019-05-01 23:42:07



投稿日時 - 2019-05-02 00:43:23