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On 21 October, the Germans were able to establish a small bridgehead on the west bank, despite a counter-attack by the newly arrived French 42nd Division and the last bridge was blown up on 23 October. Diksmuide bore the brunt of repeated German offensives and bombardments, yet the town was still not taken. The French high command planned to flood large parts of their territory as a defensive measure. This would have put the Belgian army in the impossible choice of being trapped between the flood and the Germans, or else abandoning the last part of unoccupied Belgium. The plan was postponed, since the Belgian army had started preparations to flood the area between the Yser and its tributary canals. On 25 October, the German pressure on the Belgians was so great, that a decision was taken to inundate the entire Belgian front line. After an earlier failed experiment on 21 October, the Belgians managed to open the sluices at Nieuwpoort during the nights of 26–29 October during high tides, steadily raising the water level until an impassable flooded area was created about 1-mile (1.6 km) wide, stretching as far south as Diksmuide.
The Germans launched another large attack on the Yser on 30 October. The attack punched through the Belgian second line and reached Ramskapelle and Pervijze. The attack was stalled by Belgian and French counter-attacks which recovered Ramskapelle. The final attack, planned for the next day was called off, when the attacking Germans became aware of the flooding of the land in their rear. They withdrew in the night before 31 October. On 10 November, Diksmuide fell and the fighting continued until 22 November further south, in the First Battle of Ypres. The German army failed to defeat the Belgian army and the retention of the last corner of Belgium ended the Race to the Sea and the period of open warfare. The stabilised front line along the Yser river became known as the Yser Front and continued to be held by Belgian forces until 1918 with little movement. In the British Official History, J. E. Edmonds wrote in 1925 that from (18 October – 30 November) between Gheluvelt and the coast, German casualties were c. 76,250 men. In 2010, Sheldon wrote that from 18–30 October, the Belgian army had 20,000 casualties and that German casualties may have been much greater. The struggle of the Belgian army to hold on to its territory during the remainder of the war and the experiences of ordinary Flemish infantrymen, led to an increase in Flemish national sentiment and the foundation of the Frontbeweging, the first party of the Flemish Movement, in 1917.

投稿日時 - 2019-03-21 22:14:01

QNo.9599107

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>On 21 October, the Germans were able to establish a small bridgehead on the west bank, despite a counter-attack by the newly arrived French 42nd Division and the last bridge was blown up on 23 October. Diksmuide bore the brunt of repeated German offensives and bombardments, yet the town was still not taken. The French high command planned to flood large parts of their territory as a defensive measure. This would have put the Belgian army in the impossible choice of being trapped between the flood and the Germans, or else abandoning the last part of unoccupied Belgium.
⇒新たに到着したフランス軍第42師団による反撃にもかかわらず、10月21日、ドイツ軍は西岸に小さな橋頭堡を設置することができ、最後の橋が10月23日に爆破された。ディクスムードは繰り返しドイツ軍の攻撃と砲撃の矛先を突きつけられていたが、それでも町が奪われることはなかった。フランス軍の最高司令部は、防衛策として彼らの領土の大部分を洪水で襲うことを計画した。(しかし)これは、ベルギー方面軍を洪水とドイツ軍の間に閉じ込めるか、そうでなければ占領されていないベルギーの最後の部分を放棄すること以外を選択することができない状態に追い込んだ。

>The plan was postponed, since the Belgian army had started preparations to flood the area between the Yser and its tributary canals. On 25 October, the German pressure on the Belgians was so great, that a decision was taken to inundate the entire Belgian front line. After an earlier failed experiment on 21 October, the Belgians managed to open the sluices at Nieuwpoort during the nights of 26–29 October during high tides, steadily raising the water level until an impassable flooded area was created about 1-mile (1.6 km) wide, stretching as far south as Diksmuide.
⇒この計画は延期されたが、それというのも、ベルギー軍がイゼール川とその支流水路の間の地域で洪水を起こす準備を始めたからである。10月25日、ベルギー軍に対するドイツ軍の圧力が非常に大きくなったので、ベルギーの最前線全体を浸水させるという決定が下された。10月21日の初期の実験は失敗したが、その後、ベルギー軍は何とかして10月26日-29日夜の満潮時の間にニューポート水門を開き、通行不可能な洪水地域が約1マイル(1.6 キロ)幅になるまで水位を着実に上げ、それを南のディクスムイドまで伸ばした。

>The Germans launched another large attack on the Yser on 30 October. The attack punched through the Belgian second line and reached Ramskapelle and Pervijze. The attack was stalled by Belgian and French counter-attacks which recovered Ramskapelle. The final attack, planned for the next day was called off, when the attacking Germans became aware of the flooding of the land in their rear. They withdrew in the night before 31 October.
⇒ドイツ軍は10月30日にイゼールに対して別の大規模攻撃を開始した。攻撃はベルギーの第2戦線を突破してラムスカペルとペルビィゼに到達した。(ただし)この攻撃はラムスカペルを回収したベルギー・フランス軍の反撃によって失速した。攻撃中のドイツ軍が、彼らの背後の土地の洪水に気付いたとき、翌日に計画されていた最後の攻撃は中止された。彼らは10月31日の前夜に撤退した。

>On 10 November, Diksmuide fell and the fighting continued until 22 November further south, in the First Battle of Ypres. The German army failed to defeat the Belgian army and the retention of the last corner of Belgium ended the Race to the Sea and the period of open warfare. The stabilised front line along the Yser river became known as the Yser Front and continued to be held by Belgian forces until 1918 with little movement. In the British Official History, J. E. Edmonds wrote in 1925 that from (18 October – 30 November) between Gheluvelt and the coast, German casualties were c. 76,250 men.
⇒11月10日、ディクスムイデが陥落し、南下していって「第一次イープルの戦い」で11月22日まで戦いは続いた。ドイツ方面軍はベルギー方面軍を破ることができず、ベルギーの最後の一角が維持され通したことで、「海への競争」と開放戦争が終わった。イゼール川沿いに設定された最前線は「イゼール前線」として知られるようになり、1918年までベルギー軍団によってほとんど動かずに維持され続けた。英国公報史の中でJ.E.エドモンズは、ゲルベルトと海岸の間におけるドイツ軍の死傷兵(10月18日-11月30日)は約76,250人あった、と1925年に書いている。

>In 2010, Sheldon wrote that from 18–30 October, the Belgian army had 20,000 casualties and that German casualties may have been much greater. The struggle of the Belgian army to hold on to its territory during the remainder of the war and the experiences of ordinary Flemish infantrymen, led to an increase in Flemish national sentiment and the foundation of the Frontbeweging, the first party of the Flemish Movement, in 1917.
⇒10月18日から30日までの間にベルギー軍は2万人の死傷者を出し、ドイツ軍の死傷者はもっと多かったかもしれない、とシェルドンは2010年に書いた。ベルギー方面軍の奮戦により、この戦いの残り期間に領土を掌握し、通常のフランドル軍歩兵の経験が、1917年にフランドルの国民感情およびフランドル運動の最初の党である「フロントベヴェーギング」(前線運動党)の創設につながった。

投稿日時 - 2019-04-02 11:47:01

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投稿日時 - 2019-04-02 15:46:26

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